The Amendment Process
Article V of the U.S. Constitution lays out the process by which amendments can take place.
There are two ways to go. The first is to convince two-thirds of the Congressional representatives and senators to vote for a joint resolution proposing an amendment for the States to consider. The president doesn’t sign the proposal which goes directly to the states for ratification.
The second way is to convince two-thirds of the state legislatures to ask Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments. Although there have been more than 400 applications over time from 49 of the 50 states calling for a national convention of state delegates to amend the Constitution, Congress has never voted to call such a convention.
When Congress passes a joint resolution proposing an amendment, it has two ways to go. The first is to require the amendment be voted on by state legislatures. This is how it has happened every time – except once.
The 21st Amendment repealing Prohibition was ratified by conventions held in each state. Congress was afraid that the prohibitionists would block the vote in the legislatures and believed that the people attending the conventions would be less subject to pressure.
According to the U.S. Supreme Court, ratification must take place within “some reasonable time after the proposal.” Beginning with the 18th amendment, Congress has set the period at seven years,
Only 33 proposals have obtained the necessary supermajority of Congress to be sent to the states and only 27, including the Bill of Rights, have been ratified.
Corporate Personhood was illustrated by Helen Werner Cox whose artwork is catalogued at HelenWernerCox.com.